updated: April 18, 2010


UNIFEM works on several fronts towards ending violence against women and girls. This includes tackling its main root: gender inequality.

Violence against women and girls is one of the most widespread violations of human rights. It can include physical, sexual, psychological and economic abuse, and it cuts across boundaries of age, race, culture, wealth and geography. It takes place in the home, on the streets, in schools, the workplace, in farm fields, refugee camps, during conflicts and crises. It has many manifestations from the most universally prevalent forms of domestic and sexual violence, to harmful practices, abuse during pregnancy, so-called honour killings and other types of femicide.
Gender-based violence not only violates human rights, but also hampers productivity, reduces human capital and undermines economic growth.


Between 15 and 76 percent of women are targeted for physical and/or sexual violence in their lifetime, according to the available country data. Most of this violence takes place within intimate relationships, with many women (ranging from 9 to 70 percent) reporting their husbands or partners as the perpetrator.

Exposing Gender Stereotypes

This is the first of three lessons that address gender stereotypes. The objective of this lesson is to encourage students to develop their own critical intelligence with regard to culturally inherited stereotypes, and to the images presented in the media - film and television, rock music, newspapers and magazines. In this lesson students take a look at their own assumptions about what it means to be a man, and what it means to be a woman. The brainstorming and discussion sessions are meant to encourage them to ask gender-specific questions as a step in the self-reflective process.

In addition to age, gender is one of the universal dimensions on which status differences are based. Unlike sex, which is a biological concept, gender is a social construct specifying the socially and culturally prescribed roles that men and women are to follow.

Article on women and men, their differences and gender roles with multiple links on topics such as education family, mass media, women in military, history, change and globalization regarding gender issues to great websites on this topic.

Many Eastern European countries have more female judges

The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) was set up in 1947. It offers flexibel statistical data calculation tables on different topics such as: economic cooperation and integration, energy, environment, housing and land management, gender, population, timber, trade, and transport.
Trying the gender stats table for all listed countries regarding the profession of a judge led to surprising results: From 1980 to 2008 the total number of judges per country rose steadily and with it the number of females being active in that profession. What was stunning is the percentaged distribution on men and women; in Bosnia, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Russian Federation, and Slovenia the number of female judges nearly double the rate of men; while Denmark, Finland, France, Israel, Luxembourg, and Netherlands nowadays have slightly more female judges, in contrast with Albania, Armenia, Austria, Canada, Cyprus, Georgia, Germany, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and United Kingdom where the men are more or less still in a leading position.
See generated table as pdf: PDF document

updated: April 19, 2010


Internet Women's History Sourcebook

In recent years, while not denying the history of oppression, historians have begun to focus on the agency of women. All human beings are subject to some degree of social forces that limit freedom, but within those limits people are able to exercise greater or lesser degrees of control over their own lives. This sourcebook attempts to present online documents and secondary discussions which reflect the various ways of looking at the history of women within broadly defined historical periods and areas.

Virtual Library
Women's History at the International Institute of Social History

The main purposes of this virtual library are to list women's history institutions and organizations, locate archival and library collections, and provide links to Internet resources on women's history. In addition, also included are a list of women's studies journals and a few comprehensive link collections useful as a starting point for searching the Internet for women's studies in general.

Famous Firsts
American Women's History

Activist Alice Paul proposes the Equal Rights Amendment for the first time in 1923. For almost 50 years, women's rights advocates tried to get Congress to approve the amendment; finally, in 1972, they succeeded. The 15 states that never ratified the Equal Rights Amendment are: Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Nevada, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Utah and Virginia.

European Journal of Feminist History

L'HOMME is an interface between various cultures of linguistic and academic cultures and takes various topics and regional contexts into account. The original contributions are published in German (also in translation) or English. The peer reviewed journal appears twice a year. In addition to the contributions referring to the main theme of the issue L'HOMME features synopses of research, interviews, commentaries as well as debates and book reviews.

Deborah - A Political Mother Myth
Excerpts from a lecture at the conference, Women in the Bible, held in Hohenheim in December 1991. Reprinted with the kind permission of Rabbi Prof. Dr. Nathan Peter Levinson.

Prof. Dr. Pnina Navè Levinson (Berlin 1921 - Jerusalem 1998) became the first woman to receive a doctoral degree from the Jerusalem Faculty for Jewish Studies in 1952. During the 1960s she returned to Germany to teach, most often at the University and College for Jewish Studies in Heidelberg. She was for a long time the only well-known Jewish feminist theologian in Germany.

updated: January 19, 2011


WEF - The World Economic Forum
Global Gender Gap Report 2010: Facts about the gender gaps worldwide

Several countries have introduced legislation that mandates minimum requirements for women's participation, in both business and politics. The World Economic Forum (WEF) has been among the institutions at the forefront of driving this change in mindset and practice, primarily by emphasizing the message that gender gaps have an impact on competitiveness and by engaging the business community. Measuring the size of the problem is a prerequisite for identifying the best solutions. Through the Global Gender Gap Reports, for the past five years, the World Economic Forum has been quantifying the magnitude of gender-based disparities and tracking their progress over time. By providing a comprehensive framework for benchmarking global gender gaps, the Report reveals those countries that are role models in dividing resources equitably between women and men, regardless of their level of resources.
See report as pdf: PDF document

International Museum of Women

Imagining Ourselves, an award-winning exhibition of the International Museum of Women, connects young women around the world and inspires them to create positive change in their own lives, their communities, or globally. More than a million people have participated in the project, which includes a published anthology, a series of global events, and this dynamic multilingual online exhibition with film, photography, music, poetry and personal essays - all responding to the question, "What Defines Your Generation of Women?"

Without children
Women in most European countries are waiting longer

In Germany and Austria a fully one-third of women in their mid-forties live without children.
See table as pdf: PDF document

Childless as a choice
Many women make the decision to live without raising children of their own

Statistics show that more women are choosing to remain childless as they pursue careers and lives that don't focus on raising children. The U.S. Census found that the percentage of women in their 20s, 30s, 40s and 50s who don't have children has been growing over the past decade. According to The Social Health of Marriage in America, a report from the National Marriage Project at Rutgers University, in 2004 almost one out of five women in their early 40s was childless. In 1976, it was one out of 10.

U.S. Census Facts
On Women's History Month, March 2010:

66 percentage of female citizens 18 and older who reported voting in the 2008 Presidential election. Sixty-two percent of their male counterparts cast a ballot. Additionally, 73 percent of female citizens reported being registered to vote. - 29.4 million number of women 25 and older with a bachelor's degree or more education in 2008, higher than the corresponding number for men (28.4 million). Women had a larger share of high school diplomas, as well as associate, bachelor's and master's degrees. More men than women had a professional or doctoral degree. - 38 percent of females 16 or older who worked in management, professional and related occupations, compared with 32 percent of males. - 14 percent proportion of members of the armed forces who were women. - 64.5 million number of married women 18 and older (including those who were separated or had an absent spouse), and 5.3 million number of stay-at-home mothers nationwide in 2008.

Women who made a difference

The National Women's History Project provides a list of all the women who have been honored for National Women's History Week and National Women's History Month. Founded in 1980, the NWHP is known nationally as the only clearinghouse providing information and training in multicultural women's history for educators, community organizations.

TERRE DES FEMMES maintains an archive that is open for public use. Our aim is to make this archive a central location for documenting human rights abuses committed against women.

The association currently has almost 2800 members and there are many women participating on an honorary basis in city groups throughout Germany. Together with the national headquarters, the groups organise events and set up information booths, communicate with the media and lobby decision-makers, hold presentations and collect signatures to inform the public about the exploitation, abuse and persecution of women. TERRE DES FEMMES maintains contacts with women's organisations worldwide.

updated: April 20, 2010


World History Archives
World History Archives, by Hartford Web Publishing, offers documents to support the study of world history from a working-class and non-Eurocentric perspective. Questions about the site may be answered by the site policies. Your attention is drawn to the Historical Materialism blog, which offers essays on the theory of history with an opportunity for your critical comments.

Contents: The World, World historiography, World retrospective history, History of The Near East, Western Civilization, The two polar regions, World economy and environment, World working-class history, World contemporary political history, World social history, World culture history, World Telecommunications as well as sections on The Americas, Asia & Oceania, Africa and Europe.

CLIO online
The network of Clio-online partners is composed of institutions and projects with a great deal of experience in using electronic media in a scholarly setting. The institutions represent the technological vanguard of work being done in history and new media.

The Clio-online Web Guide offers the user a gateway to historical resources on the world wide web. More than 7900 sites relevant to historical scholarship are browseable using the menu structure. You can also search all entries with a full-text search engine. Users are welcome to submit suggestions for sites, either their own or those still missing in the webguide, by reporting the site and url.

Vision for a sustainable world

Worldwatch Institute delivers the insights and ideas that empower decision makers to create an environmentally sustainable society that meets human needs. Worldwatch focuses on the 21st-century challenges of climate change, resource degradation, population growth, and poverty by developing and disseminating solid data and innovative strategies for achieving a sustainable society.

ESA - European Space Agency
Global air pollution map produced by Envisat's SCIAMACHY

Based on 18 months of Envisat observations, this high-resolution global atmospheric map of nitrogen dioxide pollution makes clear just how human activities impact air quality. ESA's ten-instrument Envisat, the world's largest satellite for environmental monitoring, was launched in February 2002. Its onboard Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY) instrument records the spectrum of sunlight shining through the atmosphere. These results are then finely sifted to find spectral absorption 'fingerprints' of trace gases in the air. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a mainly man-made gas, excess exposure to which causes lung damage and respiratory problems. It also plays an important role in atmospheric chemistry, because it leads to the production of ozone in the troposphere, which is the lowest part of the atmosphere, extending up to between eight and 16 kilometres high.

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

The most complete view ever assembled of the world's air pollution churning through the atmosphere, crossing continents and oceans, has been produced by NASA's Terra spacecraft. For the first time, policymakers and scientists now have a way to identify the major sources of air pollution and can closely track where the pollution goes, anywhere on Earth.

NationMaster Statistics
Facts & Statistics searchable by grouped topics and details

A to Z ordered groups offer multiple searchable details on global statistics, including suicide rates, teenage pregnancy, water availability, in the health section, or facts on education, crime, immigration, terrorism or democarcy.

How many people died in wars?
Twentieth Century Atlas - Death Tolls and Casualty Statistics for Wars, Dictatorships and Genocides

On 22 printed pages is a worldwide statistic written down with of secondary, mid-range wars and atrocities of the twentieth century worldwide. Last update was 2005.

How did religion or democracy spread around the globe?
Visualization of the world developments

Maps-of-War was established in September of 2006. The site was created to help people understand current events, as seen on TV and in our newspaper headlines, as being one small chapter in the much bigger and longer story of human history. Maps-of-War is produced by one individual, a graphic-design hobbyist and professional history-buff.

iLecture - The Peopling of the World
Journey of Mankind - The peopling of the world

The Journey of Mankind Genetic Map uses pop-ups for further reading, climate and extra maps. When viewing the map you will see symbols indicating more information. Clicking these will open a pop up window. Presented by Bradshaw Foundation in collaborattion with Stephen Oppenheimer.

updated: April 21, 2010


Majority of offenders, 80 per cent, are male

In 2006, males were more likely than females to be found guilty of, or cautioned for, crimes in all major crime categories. Between 82 and 94 per cent of all offenders in England and Wales found guilty of, or cautioned for, violence against the person, criminal damage, drug offences and robbery and burglary were male. Although the number of offenders was relatively small, 97 per cent of those found guilty of, or cautioned for, sexual offences were also male.

Suicide is more frequent among men than women

The suicide rate in industrialized countries has increased since the beginning of the twentieth century and reached very high levels in many European countries and North America. The rise in suicides parallels the gradual increase in urbanization and education. It is also known that a major part of the increase in the suicide rate can be attributed to those people under forty years old.

Statistics on men cheating
How Many Men Cheat?

Generally speaking, the statistics on cheating men reveal an inclination by men to follow what some call their more rudimentary nature. But statistics also reveal that sex is actually not the entire reason for infidelity.

The Men's Bibliography
A comprehensive bibliography of writing on men, masculinities, gender, and sexualities (19th edition)- Compiled by Michael Flood, first published in 1992, updated 24 January 2008

Searchable contents on topics like 'Men in Women's Studies', 'Mothers and sons', 'Single fatherhood in particular', 'Domestic and family violence, children, fathers, and family law', 'Intimacy and Emotions, Personal Healing and Growth, Relationships' as well as 'Men's Movements' and other issues.

Masculine Sexuality and Violence
Since 1992 Training for Change has been committed to increasing capacity around the world for activist training that helps groups stand up more effectively for justice, peace and the environment. Cross-cultural workshops and how to teach diversity, nonviolent action and strategy in nonjudgemental ways, are just some characteristics of TFC's unique direct education approach.

Direct action means actions that directly confront and challenge the current system of injustice; direct education means education that directly confronts and challenges the current system of injustice - which includes how people are taught. E.g. patriarchy is men having more power, both personally and politically, than women of the same rank. Patriarchy assigns a list of human characteristics according to gender. Occupations are valued according to these gender-linked characteristics. Patriarchy teaches us at very deep levels that we can never be safe with other men (or perhaps with anyone) for the guard must be kept up lest our vulnerability be exposed and we be taken advantage of.

Generation Kill
A study in hypermasculinity in the media

Hypermasculinity is term used to describe a masculine identity, that is in one or more ways, extreme; marines, pro-footballers. There is a lot of misogyny, racism and homophobia, both casual and very explicit represented: Generation Kill risks further glorifying a culture of hate, oppression and violence.

April 21, 2010

When adults go astray

Children of Prisoners
The majority of women prisoners are mothers

The growth of the prison system has dramatically impacted the lives of millions of children. In 1999, U.S. prisons held the parents of over 1.5 million children, an increase of over 500,000 since 1991.

The Effects of Divorce on Children

Researchers are now finding that boys raised by fathers and girls raised by mothers may do better than children raised by the parent of the opposite sex.

Parenting alone?

University of New Hampshire Cooperative Extension offers publications and resources on family and parenting issues: In earlier times, we used the word family to mean a biological mother and father and their children. Today's families come in a lot of different varieties.

The Internet Watch Foundation helps to combat the abuse of internet networks

The IWF was established in 1996 by the internet industry to provide the UK internet Hotline for the public and IT professionals to report criminal online content in a secure and confidential way. The Hotline service can be used anonymously to report content within our remit. We work in partnership with the online industry, law enforcement, government, and international partners to minimise the availability of this content, specifically: child sexual abuse images hosted anywhere in the world, criminally obscene adult content hosted in the UK, incitement to racial hatred content hosted in the UK, non-photographic child sexual abuse images hosted in the UK.